“TALK OF IOWA” PODCAST

Do students really read books anymore and, if so, do they do so online? When was the last time they read a print book? What if students were awarded 25 extra credit points if they brought a print book to class, for verification purposes, and then sent a response about the experience?

That was the assignment, and students at Iowa State’s Tech and Social Change classes eagerly took advantage of it, experiencing the transformative power of print books.

At first, the vast majority of students struggled with their phones’ insistent pinging to such extent that some shut off their devices and even headed to the campus library–the book’s symbolic home–for the necessary quiet to comprehend the book’s contents. The vast majority of the class rediscovered their love of reading as well as comprehending, perhaps for the first time, how much time they were wasting on phones–texting, browsing, tweeting, etc.–and the consequences of “digital attention deficit disorder.”

In sum, they were empowered by focus.

That assignment was the basis of “And for Extra Credit: Read a Physical Book” published May 28 in The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Now you can tune into “Talk of Iowa” with host Charity Nebbe interviewing Professor Michael Bugeja; Jessan Ashley-Gray, Dr. Bugeja’s former student and ISU alumnus; and Katy Kauffman, president of the Iowa Association of School Librarians.

For more information about the podcast, visit “Talk of Iowa” at this URL: https://www.iowapublicradio.org/post/surprising-benefits-real-books

The Transformative Power of Print Books

Ever try to text or multitask while reading a print book? It can be done, but it’s tricky. Covers flip shut. You have to bend the spine so the work lies flat; but you broke the book. Interpersonal Divide author Michael Bugeja tested that in his Tech & Social Change class. Results were illuminating.


Do students really read books anymore and, if so, do they do so online? When was the last time they read a print book? What if students were awarded 25 extra credit points if they brought a print book to class, for verification purposes, and then sent a response about the experience?

That was the assignment, and students readily took advantage of it, only to experience the transformative power of print books.

The vast majority of students struggled with their phones’ insistent pinging to such extent that some shut off their devices and even headed to the campus library–the book’s symbolic home–for the necessary quiet to comprehend the book’s contents. The vast majority of the class rediscovered their love of reading as well as comprehending, perhaps for the first time, how much time they were wasting on phones–texting, browsing, tweeting, etc.–and the consequences of “digital attention deficit disorder.”

In sum, they were empowered by focus.

That assignment was the basis of “And for Extra Credit: Read a Physical Book” published May 28 in The Chronicle of Higher Education.

In Spring 2019, the assignment was offered again. Students were told that they could earn 25 extra credit points by bringing the print edition of the work to class for verification purposes and by writing a response to this question: “Describe how you felt reading a print edition of the book you selected for this assignment.”

Students could choose any book on technology, philosophy and/or social change. For convenience, a 108-select bibliography of Interpersonal Divide in the Age of the Machine was provided to help facilitate selection.

After sending their responses about reading a print book, students were asked if their comments could be shared in this article. All agreed. Names have been withheld, and the order of responses rearranged so as not to be deciphered alphabetically.

FALL 2018 [n=27]

  • Distracted by Phone, 73%: Cell phones interrupted reading.
  • Educational Experience, 27%: Print book helped students focus, complete assignment.
  • Enjoyable Experience, 92%: Positive feelings about reading a print book.
  • Rarely Read Books, 27%: Students seldom read books (e-book or print) in college.
  • Relaxing Experience, 15%: A calming effect on the mind and/or improved sleep.
  • Sense of Accomplishment, 15%: Pride about progress as approached end of book.

SPRING 2019 [n=27]

  • Distracted by Phone, 67%:Cell phones interrupted reading.
  • Educational Experience, 33%:Print book helped students focus, complete assignment.
  • Enjoyable Experience, 74%:Positive feelings about reading a print book.
  • Rarely Read Books, 8%:Students seldom read books (e-book or print) in college.
  • Relaxing Experience, 15%:A calming effect on the mind and/or improved sleep.
  • Sense of Accomplishment, 26%:Pride about progress as approached end of book.

Coincidentally, an equal number of students participated in the extra credit assignment in Fall 2018 and Spring 2019. Student-coded responses indicate approximately between two-thirds (2019) and three-quarters (2018) of respondents were distracted by pings from their cell phones. Most students (92%, 2018; 74%, 2019) found reading a print book enjoyable


EXCERPTS FROM RESPONSES

While student responses in Spring 2019 largely mirrored those of the preceding class, the latest experiment gave new insight into how students and, in one case, a parent, had to cope with pinging phones.

“Within 5 minutes of reading my phone was ringing from text messages from my friends but I ignored it just fine. But in a 30-minute span I can’t even count how many times my phone rang. My mom was texting me and because I did not reply she ended up calling me. I was so frustrated at that point I was almost pushed to tears.”

Another student who put the phone on silent could not concentrate on the book without having something to hold in her hand. He/she found a remedy: snacking.  “I probably ate way too much food because of this book. I did enjoy the break of not staring at my laptop screen.”

Two students were so angry at their androids that they felt they were being held captive. “I was so interested in the book I actually got mad that my phone kept interrupting; it’s funny I say interrupting like it could talk to me but seriously that ding distracted my reading every single time,” one wrote. Another stated: “Eventually it got to the point where I asked my roommate to hold my phone hostage for at least 2 hours. It’s crazy the measures that have to be taken to get your attention away from your phone.”

Here are excerpts from student anecdotes:

  • DISTURBED: I had to leave the comforts of my bed, remove the headphones from my ears, and put all my technology on Do Not Disturb in order to finish the book.
  • APPETIZING: The notifications of text messages or Snapchat always covering up the words I’m trying to devour at the top of the page, hindering the reading experience. Reading a hardcover, in this experience made me realize that in order to comprehend and truly enjoy reading is achieved more than by just having words. It’s like wanting a cheeseburger and googling a picture. The idea of the burger is in front of you. You can touch it look at it, but the connect to this burger is not the same as being able to hold, touch, smell, and even eat the burger.
  • FINALLY FOCUSED: Wow. I can’t think of a more accurate word to summarize what it was like taking the time to pause, purposefully put down my phone and read a physical book. For the first time in a while, after reading a hardcover book, I felt a focus I hadn’t realized I’d been missing. Lately, especially since starting college three years ago, I have been finding myself frequently accidentally getting sucked from one task to another, especially while reading or doing homework on my computer. During this task, and in finishing this book, however, I finally felt like I was centered on what I was doing. I also felt an incredible sense of relaxation while reading that was not only peaceful, but mentally engaging.
  • FACE-DOWN PHONE: During my experience reading my selected book, I found that I did have some distractions. My phone, TV, and roommate would sometimes get in the way of my focus on sitting down to read the book and comprehend the information. I would have to silence my phone and turn it face down most times I read so I wouldn’t be distracted.
  • MOM WORRIED: At first, I thought the hardest part of the assignment would be the writing portion, but in reality, it was the sitting down and reading. I distinctly remember one day I had the morning off from work so I decided to read and take notes for the assignment. Within 5 minutes of reading my phone was ringing from text messages from my friends but I ignored it just fine. But in a 30-minute span I can’t even count how many times my phone rang. My mom was texting me and because I did not reply she ended up calling me. I was so frustrated at that point I was almost pushed to tears. I truly just wanted some peace and quiet so I turned off all my electronics just so I could read.
  • ANGRY AT ANDROID: I started reading with my phone by my side of course and every time it would ding I would pick it up stop my reading respond to it, eventually when I got to the 40th page or so I started getting so upset at my phone I had to turn it on silent and set a timer for me to read for an hour then check my phone after that hour was up. I was so interested in the book I actually got mad that my phone kept interrupting; it’s funny I say interrupting like it could talk to me but seriously that ding distracted my reading every single time. It was nice to silent my phone and enjoy the book itself.
  • NEW MOTIVATION: My experience reading a print book was very interesting. I made it a goal to turn my phone over and avoid the temptation to check it. I actually found the book so interesting that I read it over the course of one day. I would reward myself for finishing a chapter by looking at my phone and quickly catching up on responding to messages. I used it kind of as a way to motivate myself even though it made the process of reading it a little longer.
  • DISRESPECTED PRINT: The typical person can’t just sit down in a quiet place and focus on one thing. I found myself setting up a rewards system: ‘when I read 10 pages I can go check Twitter.’ When I would sit down to read I would have to force myself to not look at my phone and when I did pick up my phone, I felt guilty! Like I was actually disrespecting the book. When I forced myself to ignore the distraction of screens, I discovered that I was until able to get lost in the content.
  • CALMED DOWN: For the book that I read in print, I can say I had a good experience — and there was definitely a difference when I read it with my phone next to me or not. When I did have my phone by me, I consistently had the urge to check it, or even just scroll through Twitter. Although, at one point my phone died, so I put it on the charger in the other room. Oddly enough, I was still not completely focused just because I was worried about missing something important. But after a while, I just kept my phone in the other room and eventually calmed down. After calming down, it was easy for me to read the book at a quick pace and still retain information, since I was actually paying attention.
  • PHONE TIMER: I found myself taking breaks and checking my phone too often for no apparent reason. I wasn’t retaining anything I read and I kept re-reading the parts that I missed. I was getting annoyed. Eventually after getting so distracted and not being able to focus, I set a timer on my phone for an hour and I told myself I couldn’t stop reading my book and letting myself get distracted by technology till the timer went off. It sounds kind of crazy but that’s what I had to do to be focused while I read. Not only did I learn a lot from just reading the book, but I also learned how controlled I am by my device.
  • GIVE-AWAY PHONE: Personally, I thought reading a print book was hard. It was hard mainly because I found myself being distracted. I knew that my phone was going to be a distraction, but I underestimated how much of a distraction it was. Even if I didn’t hear a notification sound I would periodically check my phone just because I felt like I was missing something. I ended up having to turn my phone off and give it to my roommate just so I wasn’t tempted to turn it back on.
  • RE-INSTILLED LOVE: In the beginning my phone was a distraction. I would often check notifications or look on my social media apps. However, after I was finished with chapter one I turned off my phone and kept it in another room so I could focus on reading. I sat in bed, put a candle on and started to read, and wow had time flew by. I forgot about all my other worries/ stresses and was truly captivated with the words being read, it relaxed me. I started getting excited for the times of my day that I was able to read the book, to shut off from my phone. When I finished and closed the book I felt greatly accomplished, more so than playing the games on my phone. I’m thankful for this project because it re-instilled my love for reading print books and has got me back in the game. So, thank you.
  • ATE A LOT: I found my concentration improved when I distracted my hands with something to play with or I was eating. I probably ate way too much food because of this book. I did enjoy the break of not staring at my laptop screen. I get headaches often from screens and that is a challenge I have to overcome as a graphic designer who has to stare at the screen for hours at a time. The book did not give me any side effects.
  • HELD HOSTAGE: It was extremely hard keeping my attention on the book the first few days getting into it. I was constantly going on my phone and if I wasn’t on it, my mind would wander away from the text and on to other things. Eventually it got to the point where I asked my roommate to hold my phone hostage for at least 2 hours. It’s crazy the measures that have to be taken to get your attention away from your phone. I came to the sad realization that I am in fact, addicted to my phone (shocker).

COMPLETE RESPONSES WITH SELECTED BOOK

To fully appreciate the addictive nature of smartphones and how they negatively affect critical thinking, read the full responses of students along with their chosen works. You’ll also discover how many enjoyed reading a print book or found the assignment relaxing or educational.  Perhaps the testimonials might persuade educators to assign print books rather than e-books or other online reading, mainly because the devices used to access content continuously interrupt and undermine reading comprehension.

Student #1 (Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, Bantam Books, 1995)

“I finished my book today. I am an 18-credit student with a part-time internship and I am also graduating in May, so I am applying and interviewing for full-time jobs after graduation as well. I keep myself very busy, so it was nice to sit down and read a book that really makes me think on a different level about my own emotions, how I handle them and recognizing and handling other people’s emotions. I really enjoyed it. I’m so glad that we are doing book reports in this class because I have been wanting to sit down and free read, but I never have time with my busy schedule. I am very glad I decided to buy my own paper copy from Amazon because I was able to actually highlight the book when I found something that really made me think or something that related to my own life. After reading this book, I was also able to relate well with my Mom. She is currently 5th-grade special education teacher and in past years was a social worker. Emotional intelligence is a really important part of what she teaches her students on a daily basis. I don’t know that she realized there was a name for it, but she does now. A big part of the book is that it is important for kids to work on emotional intelligence at a young age, so it was a good topic of discussion for my Mom and I. I think there’s a good chance I will be passing this book on to her.”

Student #2 (Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other by Sherry Turkle, Basic Books, 2011)

Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other“Reading a hard copy of my book was a positive experience in my opinion. Lately, I have been getting used to the idea of only using e-books, but reading this hardcover book reminded me of how I used to love books in a physical copy. I read about 50 pages per day, so it was a nice opportunity for me to have a chance to sit down and relax at least once a day. Reading a hardcover book was relaxing for me. I usually would read at my house or at a coffee shop which are calmer environments for me. Overall this experience helped me reduce my daily stress level and to just take a second to sit down after a hectic college day.”

Student #3 (Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds For the Better by Clive Thompson, Penguin Books, 2014)

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better“I was never an avid reader until I got to college. Now, each break I finish as many books as possible and find myself ordering more books than I can finish during the academic year. However, when it comes to assigned academic readings, my motivation instantly vanishes. This assignment took me by surprise, though. Being able to pick the book truly helped motivate me to finish quicker than I originally anticipated. When I first cracked open the book, I tried to listen to music at the same time since that’s what I do when completing homework assignments. After an hour on the same five pages, I realized I was going to have to treat this as a book and not as an assignment. I had to leave the comforts of my bed, remove the headphones from my ears, and put all my technology on Do Not Disturb in order to finish the book. I felt extremely proud of myself for finishing an entire book that was part of a homework assignment (mainly because I rarely ever do).”

Student #4 (It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens by Danah M. Boyd, Yale University Press, 2014)

It's Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens“Growing up I was always an avid reader, clinging to the smells and comfortable atmosphere of the public library and the adventurous books it held inside its walls. The closer I got to college, however, the less I found myself picking up hard copy books, instead, falling to the convenience of the Kindle. As wonderful as it is to be able to pull out my phone or iPad and leisurely read on a bus, or in a dull moment, there is always something missing between the book and me. The notifications of text messages or Snapchat always covering up the words I’m trying to devour at the top of the page, hindering the reading experience. Reading a hardcover, in this experience made me realize that in order to comprehend and truly enjoy reading is achieved more than by just having words. It’s like wanting a cheeseburger and googling a picture. The idea of the burger is in front of you. You can touch it look at it, but the connect to this burger is not the same as being able to hold, touch, smell, and even eat the burger. Holding a physical book, being able to truly connect to it really made this reading experience that much better. I found myself being more inclined and excited to read instead of watching Netflix, or scrolling on my phone. I tremendously enjoyed this push to skip the convenience and instead go the extra one step in order to truly enjoy all that reading is.”

Student #5 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2011)

The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains“Wow. I can’t think of a more accurate word to summarize what it was like taking the time to pause, purposefully put down my phone and read a physical book. For the first time in a while, after reading a hardcover book, I felt a focus I hadn’t realized I’d been missing. Lately, especially since starting college three years ago, I have been finding myself frequently accidentally getting sucked from one task to another, especially while reading or doing homework on my computer. During this task, and in finishing this book, however, I finally felt like I was centered on what I was doing. I also felt an incredible sense of relaxation while reading that was not only peaceful, but mentally engaging. The reason for this response, and for my overall enjoyment of this assignment, I credit to the fact that my phone and laptop (with their many functions and opportunities for distraction) were silently and intentionally placed in my backpack while I read. In finishing the book, I also found it was rewarding to know that the physical stack of pages in front of me and their ideas were now familiar to my mind. I am not sure that gratification of finishing the book in that sense would have been the same if I’d simply closed out of an E-reader on my phone or laptop. I was also happy to find myself remembering what I was reading more with this physical text than I feel I normally do with online media text.”

Student #6 (The Social Media Industries by Alan B. Albarran, Routledge 2013)

“I actually really enjoyed reading my book and I definitely didn’t think I would at the beginning. I actually prefer reading print books over digital just because reading online hurts my eyes and makes me way more exhausted. The thing with reading books for any class though is that my phone is always a distraction and I have to hold my book, answer a text/snap and then go back to reading. At one point I just turned my phone on do not disturb because I just needed to focus. Which sounds ridiculous typing this out, but I guess it’s good to realize how attentive I feel like I need to be to my phone. All in all, it was a good experience reading the book since I rarely read books during the school year unless it’s for notes.”

Student #7 (The Glass Cage by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2014)

The Glass Cage: How Our Computers Are Changing Us“I completed my book on Wednesday and I really enjoyed it. I’m probably not the typical college student but I frequently read for fun (I read 21 books last year) and I was so excited to finally do some reading for class that was out of an actual book. Since I normally read fiction, I was a little worried that I wouldn’t like reading an information-heavy book. It was awesome! I still had a great experience and found reading the book fun even though I knew I would be writing a paper on it. The only challenging thing about this project was pushing myself to finish the book in time. Sometimes it takes me only a day or two to read a book and other times it can take a month since I do my reading for enjoyment. It was sometimes challenging to read in the middle of the day (I fell asleep a time or two reading this book) because I normally read at night to wind down. I love this project and wish that other teachers had this kind of thinking when it comes to classes.”

Student #8 (The Mind and the Machine: What It Means to Be Human and Why It Matters by Matthew T. Dickerson, Brazos Press, 2011)

Mind and the Machine, The: What It Means to Be Human and Why It Matters“My parents instilled in me at an early age that reading was important and a great way to use my imagination and learn about the world. I have always loved reading books because of that and would read almost a book a week when I was in elementary school and middle school. In high school, it got really hard to find time to sit down to read print books and that carried over into college as I committed my time to other things. I never enjoyed reading e-Books when that started to be a fad, and I have always been loyal to print books. Barnes and Noble is still one of my favorite places to shop. During my experience reading my selected book, I found that I did have some distractions. My phone, TV, and roommate would sometimes get in the way of my focus on sitting down to read the book and comprehend the information. I would have to silence my phone and turn it face down most times I read so I wouldn’t be distracted. I would tell my boyfriend that I would be busy for the next hour while I read so we wouldn’t try to bother me. However, I really enjoyed making time for myself to read and enjoy literature once again because I think I have only read 5 print books since I have been in college (whether it be for fun or in a class). I love reading books so much and reading this book for the class has motivated me again to set aside time to do something I enjoy so much. I have a goal to read 5 more books this year and look forward to reading all kinds of genres of books.”

Student #9 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2011)

“Overall, it was fine. I have actually only ‘read’ one electronic book in my life and it was a text book for a class. That is why read is in quotations. The rest of the time when I read books they are always printed. I enjoy reading print books more because of the tangibility aspect. I feel like I am able to focus on the book more by physically holding it. It makes me feel less distracted from technology while reading. However, I did find myself checking my phone often and this would break my concentration from the book. I ended up having to put my phone out of arm’s reach so I couldn’t get to it while reading. I like reading print books so my experience reading this book was not much different. I will continue to read print books because I prefer it. Thanks!”

Student #10 (Mediated: How the Media Shapes Your World and the Way You Live in It by Thomas de Zengotita, Bloomsbury, 2005)

Mediated: How the Media Shapes Your World and the Way You Live in It“I use to be an avid reader growing up. I was quite excited for this assignment because I truly forgot the last time I sat down and read a printed book. At first, I thought the hardest part of the assignment would be the writing portion, but in reality, it was the sitting down and reading. I distinctly remember one day I had the morning off from work so I decided to read and take notes for the assignment. Within 5 minutes of reading my phone was ringing from text messages from my friends but I ignored it just fine. But in a 30-minute span I can’t even count how many times my phone rang. My mom was texting me and because I did not reply she ended up calling me. I was so frustrated at that point I was almost pushed to tears. I truly just wanted some peace and quiet so I turned off all my electronics just so I could read. But after finishing a chapter and turning on my phone it was piled up with text messages, emails, missed calls etc. Doing this assignment reminded me that it is truly almost impossible to get time just to focus. Everything is ringing begging for your attention. If you don’t give your phone the attention it wants it continues to pester you until you have no choice but to forfeit.”

Student #11 (Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds For the Better by Clive Thompson, Penguin 2014)

“Throughout my time in the class and reading this book, I was thrilled with having such an easy task as to use reading a hard copy of a book. I know a lot of people who have not read a book since they were in high school and were forced to read but unlike those people I was raised in a household that favors reading over anything. We never had a TV for the most part and this prompted unto open our imaginations and have to read to seek inspiration. I used to always sit down and read before bed because I would struggle with headaches after school and looking at my phone was the opposite of what would help me. Reading a book of this category though is what actually surprised me because I did not expect to enjoy it as much as I did and when I got through it, it truly opened my eyes to see how someone with a technological background relies and views technology. This experience though reading book for class that you didn’t absolutely hate and got to choose was a nice experience and a good time out that I could sit down and relax after reading books for my major.”

Student #12 (The Internet is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2015)

The Internet Is Not the Answer“My experience while reading this book was very interesting at first. I started reading with my phone by my side of course and every time it would ding I would pick it up stop my reading respond to it, eventually when I got to the 40th page or so I started getting so upset at my phone I had to turn it on silent and set a timer for me to read for an hour then check my phone after that hour was up. I was so interested in the book I actually got mad that my phone kept interrupting; it’s funny I say interrupting like it could talk to me but seriously that ding distracted my reading every single time. It was nice to silent my phone and enjoy the book itself. I got a lot more reading accomplished when I started putting my phone away.”

Student #13 (Reviving Work Ethic: A Leader’s Guide to Ending Entitlement and Restoring Pride in the Emerging Workforce by Eric Chester, Greenleaf, 2012)

Reviving Work Ethic: A Leader's Guide to Ending Entitlement and Restoring Pride in the Emerging Workforce“Reading a paperback book was a great experience. Regardless of this extra credit opportunity, I wouldn’t have even thought about downloading it online or reading it on any type of screen. Personally. I love to read, and the best part for me is a physical paper form (bonus if you get to buy it new from Barnes & Noble or target). I think my favorite thing about reading a physical book is taking a break from screens. I will admit I spend too much time on my iPhone, and as a student my life is on my laptop. Reading is refreshing and makes me feel good – and is a great alternative to watching Netflix or Hulu for entertainment. The chance to read a book for an assignment was exciting to me as opposed to studying for an exam or analyzing a case study online. Overall, it was a great experience and I feel as though the content I read has given me a deeper understanding to our society and what makes different generations of people how they are.”

Student #14 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2011)

“I really enjoyed having the option of reading a print book. I know that we got extra credit of 25 points, just by reading a print book, but I think that it was the perfect incentive for me to actually do it. I am so glad that I took the extra step of buying the book and actually reading the book. I feel that if I would have just read an eBook, I wouldn’t have retained the information correctly and I would have been half reading it due to distractions of being on my computer by text messages, emails, notifications, etc. I think that it was almost right to read the book in a print form. In the book he talks about the impact the Net (reading eBooks) has on our human brains. I love reading, I still pick up books in my personal free time and read. This assignment really opened my eyes to show how much I do enjoy reading and how I need to prioritize more time away from my electronics and sit down and read. It’s good for our brains and my brain to take the time to deep think and zone out what is going on around me. It was refreshing to finish a book, and made me feel super productive. And I got to read a very good book doing it!”

Student #15 (Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains by Susan Greenfield, Random House 2015)

Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains“My experience reading a print book was very interesting. I made it a goal to turn my phone over and avoid the temptation to check it. I actually found the book so interesting that I read it over the course of one day. I would reward myself for finishing a chapter by looking at my phone and quickly catching up on responding to messages. I used it kind of as a way to motivate myself even though it made the process of reading it a little longer. Even though I was completely engaged and interested in what I was reading, I still felt a need to check my phone or emails after each chapter in case of an emergency (which is ironic because the book I read explores this need to check our phones in case of an emergency). Since I read it over a course of a day, never leaving my apartment, I ran into a series of distractions other than my phone that I needed to consciously overcome. After making dinner with my roommate, we ate it in my room while watching Netflix. I wanted to keep reading the book so I told myself I could still read it thoroughly while Netflix was on and I was in the company of my roommate. I quickly realized it took me twice as long to comprehend what I was reading because I constantly had to re-read it as my mind got distracted from what was going on the TV or what my roommate was interrupting me to talk about. After about 30 minutes of that I nicely told my roommate I just need to read in silence so I could obtain everything I could from this book. What I found most beneficial about reading a print book versus a digital copy was my ability to highlight quotes and concepts that stand out or resonate with me. I can now pick this book up and glance through what I highlighted to remember what I found to be important while reading. This was also very helpful in writing the book review because I could quickly include the most influential quotes to me in the paper. Overall, I would truly prefer to read a physical copy of a book as opposed to a digital copy.”

Student #16 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2011)

“One of my resolutions for 2019 was to try and read one book every month for the whole year. Keyword: try. So far, I have succeeded in finishing two books in two months, one of them being this book I’m reviewing. Reading a non-fiction book can sometimes seem daunting but I absolutely loved this book. I’m glad I purchased it so that I can come back to it later. I absolutely hate admitting that at times when I was reading, I couldn’t read an entire page without getting distracted by my phone or computer or whatever I was watching on Netflix. This is quite ironic considering I was reading a book about that specific struggle. The typical person can’t just sit down in a quiet place and focus on one thing. I found myself setting up a rewards system: ‘when I read 10 pages I can go check Twitter.’ When I would sit down to read I would have to force myself to not look at my phone and when I did pick up my phone, I felt guilty! Like I was actually disrespecting the book. When I forced myself to ignore the distraction of screens, I discovered that I was until able to get lost in the content.”

Student #17 (Exploring Robotic Minds: Actions, Symbols, and Consciousness as Self-Organizing Dynamic Phenomena by Jun Tani, Oxford 2016)

Exploring Robotic Minds: Actions, Symbols, and Consciousness as Self-Organizing Dynamic Phenomena (Oxford Series on Cognitive Models and Architectures)“Reading a hardcover book is much more enjoyable. I was able to understand the information in a much more controlled manner as I could stop, pause, and reread things much more easily than on a computer. Have the book in front of me also allowed me to focus more on just reading. I could use my pen to help me progress down the page as well as quickly jot down thoughts I had on the reading. In relation to technology and reading, I found I have to put my phone within farther than arm’s length away otherwise I would be to tempted to look at it. I also think that having the tech away was useful because when I read on a laptop I get alerts for emails and articles I am subscribed to and without that my reading is much more effective.”

Student #18 (Reviving Work Ethic: A Leader’s Guide to Ending Entitlement and Restoring Pride in the Emerging Workforce by Eric Chester, Greenleaf 2012)

“For the book that I read in print, I can say I had a good experience — and there was definitely a difference when I read it with my phone next to me or not. When I did have my phone by me, I consistently had the urge to check it, or even just scroll through Twitter. Although, at one point my phone died, so I put it on the charger in the other room. Oddly enough, I was still not completely focused just because I was worried about missing something important. But after a while, I just kept my phone in the other room and eventually calmed down. After calming down, it was easy for me to read the book at a quick pace and still retain information, since I was actually paying attention.”

Student #19 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicolas Carr, Norton 2011)

“One thing I wish I did more was read. It’s not that I don’t like reading but it’s just the point of actually sitting down and getting into a book. I knew this assignment would be a good chance to start reading more. I really enjoyed reading this book. I enjoy a book that allows me to think and it kept me wanting to read more. However, one challenge reading this book was not getting distracted! Some days were easier than others. I found myself taking breaks and checking my phone too often for no apparent reason. I wasn’t retaining anything I read and I kept re-reading the parts that I missed. I was getting annoyed. Eventually after getting so distracted and not being able to focus, I set a timer on my phone for an hour and I told myself I couldn’t stop reading my book and letting myself get distracted by technology till the timer went off. It sounds kind of crazy but that’s what I had to do to be focused while I read. Not only did I learn a lot from just reading the book, but I also learned how controlled I am by my device. It made me realize that I give my phone way more attention than needed. After this assignment, I am more conscious about how much I am on my phone especially when doing homework and when I need the most focus. Lastly, I hope I can continue to pick up a book and start reading more.”

Student #20 (Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl, Beacon Press 2006)

Man's Search for Meaning“Reading the paper book instead of on the computer reminded me of when I use to read in the library. my book was old and smelled somewhat like old cheese. I had a good chuckle at seeing how badly an old library book. I enjoyed reading the hard cover because I did not feel my eyes getting irritated by the bright screen. Reading in paper was a good experience and I did enjoy it but I feel that its time in the spotlight is over. Reading a paper book is to me like wright a note with pen and paper. It’s a nice gesture but I won’t be doing much of it in today’s world.”

Student #21 (Virtually You: The Dangerous Powers of the E-Personality by Elias Aboujaoude, MD, Norton 2011)

“Personally, I thought reading a print book was hard. It was hard mainly because I found myself being distracted. I knew that my phone was going to be a distraction, but I underestimated how much of a distraction it was. Even if I didn’t hear a notification sound I would periodically check my phone just because I felt like I was missing something. I ended up having to turn my phone off and give it to my roommate just so I wasn’t tempted to turn it back on. I will say that I enjoyed unplugging and reading a hard copy of a book. Sometimes I would lose track of time as I was reading and an hour would go by. Before I had a laptop or a smart phone I would read multiple books each month. Recently, I haven’t been reading books, other than textbooks, and doing this assignment made me miss reading for enjoyment.  Because of this assignment I will continue to read physical copies of books and unplug more.”

Student #22 (The Glass Cage by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2014)

“In the time we had to do this assignment a lot has happened in my life which made me insanely busy, with barely any time for homework. I was devastated and felt like I was incredibly behind. That stress put me down. However, I told myself that even though my mind was running 100 miles a minute, I needed to take a few days and focus on the book for this class. In the beginning my phone was a distraction. I would often check notifications or look on my social media apps. However, after I was finished with chapter one I turned off my phone and kept it in another room so I could focus on reading. I sat in bed, put a candle on and started to read, and wow had time flew by. I forgot about all my other worries/ stresses and was truly captivated with the words being read, it relaxed me. I started getting excited for the times of my day that I was able to read the book, to shut off from my phone. When I finished and closed the book I felt greatly accomplished, more so than playing the games on my phone. I’m thankful for this project because it re-instilled my love for reading print books and has got me back in the game. So, thank you.”

Student #23 (The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom by Jonathan Haidt, Basic Books 2006)

The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom“First off, I became annoyed with myself. Although I am not used to reading philosophy books, my attention span felt like SIX SECONDS. I could maybe read a paragraph or a couple of sentences at a time. Then I would have to reread it because I only took in half of what it had to offer. I recall talking in class that our attention spans are now like fish or something like that. I believe it. I am used to reading fiction books, where I can get lost into its story. The easiest parts to read in this book were when the author was recalling a study that was conducted. This was because it was written like a story. This book had a lot of these mini-stories within its chapters, which I liked. I found my concentration improved when I distracted my hands with something to play with or I was eating. I probably ate way too much food because of this book. I did enjoy the break of not staring at my laptop screen. I get headaches often from screens and that is a challenge I have to overcome as a graphic designer who has to stare at the screen for hours at a time. The book did not give me any side effects. Overall, I enjoyed reading a real book. I just wish I had read it slowly over a longer period of time. I read it in a week and a half. I would like to read one concept at a time and then sleep on it and let it sink.”

Student #24 (Personal Connections in the Digital Age by Nancy K. Baym, Cambridge 2011)

Personal Connections in the Digital Age (Digital Media and Society)“Reading a physical book was not very challenging for me, what was hard was reading a book that was outside of the types of books I like to read. I love to read and when I do its always physical books. The only time I read e-books was when I was studying abroad and space wise made more sense to bring books digitally. I am not much of a nonfiction reader unless it is written by someone who is funny. I like the stories. When books are more theoretical and don’t talk about concrete events or happenings it is hard for me to focus on it. It is hard for me to really dive into a book during the school semester as well. There are so many distraction or things I can be doing than sitting in my room reading a book. Overall, I enjoyed this assignment, it allowed me to start reading again and made me want to pick up another book.”

Student #25 (The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2011)

“I personally haven’t read a book front to back since high school, so this was a bit of a challenge. I originally had wanted to purchase the auditable version of the book so I could listen instead of read the words. After finding out about the extra credit however I knew I had to physically read the book. I will say it wasn’t as painstakingly miserable as I had thought it would be. It definitely helped to have a book that was truly interesting to me and was well written and comprehensible. It was extremely hard keeping my attention on the book the first few days getting into it. I was constantly going on my phone and if I wasn’t on it, my mind would wander away from the text and on to other things. Eventually it got to the point where I asked my roommate to hold my phone hostage for at least 2 hours. It’s crazy the measures that have to be taken to get your attention away from your phone. I came to the sad realization that I am in fact, addicted to my phone (shocker). By the time I finished the book, I felt super accomplished and felt I had absorbed in quite a bit of information that I most likely would not have taken in using my phone to read or an online/audible version. I liked holding a physical copy of the book and definitely think I may try reading more often as I realize it is extremely important and beneficial to exercise that part of your brain.”

Student #26 (The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google by Nicholas Carr, Norton 2013)

The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google“Reading a print book was a nostalgic experience for me. Other than textbooks, this was the first time I’ve read a print book since high school. Middle school, really, since I was forced to read a couple books in high school. It was surprisingly enjoyable. I forgot what it was like to read a book willingly. Textbooks are dry and boring. I have a very difficult time focusing when I read them. I really enjoyed reading this book. It was informative and interesting, but it was also therapeutic. It was a great way to unwind every day and get ready for bed. It was nice to ignore my phone for an hour or so a day. Texting while reading was a challenge; I gave up after a while. All in all, it was a good experience, and I might just keep reading more.”

Student #27 (Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age by Sherry Turkle, Penguin 2016)

Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age“I did not experience anything astounding reading the print version of this book. I have to read from physical books for most of my other classes (pretty much every history class). I enjoy reading physical copies of books rather than online because I like holding the book and being able to know where I am at in the reading. With online copies it is harder to judge where you in the reading and you can easily lose your spot. Also, when you have to do a paper on the book, it is much easier to place sticky notes and find sections you want to write about. I also genuinely like to read in my spare time and I like to purchase the actual book. I like being able to read it anywhere without having to worry about internet and/or charge on my battery on a device. We mentioned in class how some people couldn’t text and hold their book open at the same time and I honestly do not see that issue, I do not think it is that hard.”


Interpersonal Divide in the Age of the Machine documents how consumer technology erodes relationships at home, school and work. A section of the book is dedicated to digital distractions in colleges and universities.

Here’s an excerpt:

Online distraction pervades all levels of society. But distraction in children comes with educational consequences that afflict comprehension of the written word and, at times, their own emotions at a critical time in their development. Unlike many parents and grandparents, schooled in a literary rather than digital age, lacking incessant distraction, children may never realize the harm being done to their levels of emotional and interpersonal intelligence, precisely because they have no basis of comparison. Reading requires focused attention.

To keep up with new developments associated with the interpersonal divide, follow us or use posts to facilitate discussions at home, school or work.

Ralph Nader: Boeing MAX 8 crashes “a harbinger” of what is to come

Interpersonal Divide was among the first to question technology overriding common sense in Boeing Max 8 crashes. Now consumer advocate Ralph Nader makes the same argument, dubbing the airline disasters a product of “algorithmic arrogance” in autonomous systems.

Last month Interpersonal Divide noted that technology was not only suspect in the failure of two Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft; it also played a role in pilot training with a 56-minute online iPad lesson. Now Boeing software combined with inadequate training have been cited as causes in  the crashes of Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines, resulting in the deaths of some 300 people.

Boeing and the Federal Aviation Administration showed an appalling lack of common sense after the second Ethiopian Airlines crash. We noted: “One aircraft falling from the skies might have gotten the FAA’s attention; a second similar craft doing the exact same thing–pilots struggling to aright their jet–should have set off alarms. Nevertheless, the FAA initially didn’t act after countries around the globe had grounded the MAX 8 after the second crash. This might have occurred because the Administration is ‘data-driven’ and data from the black box of the Ethiopian Airlines crash was not immediately available.”

Boeing Max 8 aircraft are grounded as the company updates its safety software, again relying on technology to fix what Nader believes is faulty engineering.

This is an example of what Ralph Nader calls “algorithmic arrogance.” In his interview with NPR, he states:

You know, this is a harbinger. You’ll be covering a lot of this in medical technology, autonomous weapons, self-driving cars. It’s the arrogance of the algorithms, not augmenting human intelligence but overriding it and replacing it. The significance of this Boeing disaster is that it can teach us some very important lessons about maintaining human intelligence and not ceding it to autonomous systems that have no moral base and no intuition.

In 2007, Interpersonal Divide author Michael Bugeja contributed a chapter titled–“Digital Ethics in Autonomous Systems“–in Lee Wilkins and Clifford G. Christians The Handbook of Mass Media Ethics.

Here is an excerpt, citing French-Maltese philosopher Jacques Ellul’s dictum that technology overrides human intellect, altering any system in a deterministic manner; “it realizes itself”:

In other words, apply technology to the economy, and the economy henceforth is about technology (think NASDAQ). Apply it to politics, and politics henceforth is about technology (think Kennedy-Nixon debates). Apply it to education, and education henceforth is about technology (think Sesame Street). Apply it to journalism, and journalism henceforth is about technology (think convergence). Moreover, because technology is autonomous and independent of everything, it cannot be blamed for anything.

Ralph Nader is challenging that last assumption, calling for a recall of all Boeing Max 8 aircraft, just like auto companies do. “They’ve got to go back to the drawing board, a clean sheet design of a new plane.”

A new edition of Wilkins and Christian’s The Handbook of Mass Media Ethics is in process with an updated Bugeja chapter, to be published by Routledge/Taylor & Francis. Wilkins and Christians rank among the top media ethicists. Wilkins also focuses her research on media coverage of the environment and hazards and risks. Christians is internationally known for his research in the contemporary study and philosophy of ethics and technology.

Detective to Discuss Case of Subway Pitchman Jared Fogle

Indiana State Police Detective Kevin Getz, a former journalism student of Interpersonal Divide author Michael Bugeja, will visit classes at Iowa State University to discuss his role in the 2015 arrest of Subway pitchman Jared Fogle on child pornography charges.

Indiana State Police Detective Kevin Getz will present a case study to Iowa State students in Media Ethics and in Technology and Social Change, exploring investigative methods and forensic analysis in the arrest of former Subway spokesman Jared Fogle and former Jared Foundation Executive Director Russell Taylor.

Getz will discuss details of the arrest, including how he and other authorities prevented additional crimes that led to the rescue of 14 children.

In 2014, Getz was contacted by a woman whom Taylor had befriended, sharing text messages with her containing disturbing sexual content. The woman decided to contact authorities when Taylor asked if he could send her child pornography.

Based on those messages, Getz and other authorities arrested Taylor who was sentenced to 27 years in prison.

That arrest eventually led Getz and authorities to Fogle, sentenced to 15 years in prison on charges associated with child pornography and sexual conduct involving minors.

Interpersonal Divide contains sections about digital technology and crimes against children. Here’s an excerpt:

Since the 1990s, Internet has been associated with the wide-spread distribution of child pornography. At the National Strategy Conference on Combating Child Exploitation, former Attorney General Eric Holder, Jr., spoke about the explosion of child pornography crimes because of Internet distribution through online communities and networks. Holder noted that the Internet “provides ground for individuals to create, access, and share child sexual abuse images worldwide at the click of a button,” with images “readily available through virtually every Internet technology including websites, email, instant messaging/ICQ, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), newsgroups, bulletin boards, peer-to-peer networks, and social networking sites.”[i] Increasingly, however, tweens, teens and young adults are contributing to the exploitation by sexting each other, sharing nudity through message, photo, email or social network.  … The more students learn about technology, the more they will use it responsibly. The more distracted they are, the greater the risk.
[i] Eric Holder Jr., “Child Pornography,” National Strategy Conference on Combating Child Exploitation in San Jose, California, May 19, 2011; https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/child-pornography

Detective Getz will discuss how text messages and other digital content led to arrests in the Fogle case.

Getz is a 1990 graduate of Ohio University’s Scripps School of Journalism. He joined the Indiana State Police in 1993. He also served in the Criminal Investigation Division before his current assignment with the Indiana Crimes Against Children Unit. Getz and his wife Deborah have three children, Elizabeth, Thomas and Katie.

Technology overrode common sense in Boeing MAX 8 crashes

Over-reliance on technology and questionable FAA oversight were linked to two crashes that killed more than 300 people. The second crash occurred 11 days after the Seattle Times questioned Boeing about safety flaws.

Technology was not only suspect in the failure of two Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft; it also played a role in pilot training.

In the “Today” video above, pilots reportedly received training in a 56-minute online iPad lesson about an aircraft whose faulty software also was suspected in causing the crashes of the Lion Air in October and Ethiopian Airlines earlier this month.

Worse, some pilots were not informed about certain safety software systems installed on their planes. According to Politico, U.S. pilots had complained at least five times about controlling the aircraft during critical stages of flight.

A particular distressing factor in the two crashes concerned additional safety features that required a pricey upgrade in airlines purchasing the MAX 8, according to the New York Times: “As the pilots of the doomed Boeing jets in Ethiopia and Indonesia fought to control their planes, they lacked two notable safety features in their cockpits. One reason: Boeing charged extra for them.”

The Times noted that upgrades typically do not involve safety–more bathrooms, for instance; in the aftermath of the crashes, Boeing will not charge extra for one of those features, in an attempt to get the MAX 8 airborne again.

Eleven days before the second crash, Seattle Times reporter Dominic Gates had informed Boeing about questions concerning the power of the flight control system, designed to push the nose of the aircraft down to avert a stall. He had also learned a system reset function that could override a pilot’s response, causing the plane’s nose to keep pushing downward.

His investigative report also disclosed failed oversight by the Federal Aviation Administration:

The FAA, citing lack of funding and resources, has over the years delegated increasing authority to Boeing to take on more of the work of certifying the safety of its own airplanes.

His report illustrates the importance of fact-based journalism in a case where common sense–a distinctly human trait–was overridden by machines. This applies not only to inadequate online training, especially on tablets with insistent pinging and notifications, but also to the FAA that allowed the MAX 8 to fly after the Ethiopian Airlines crash.

One aircraft falling from the skies might have gotten the FAA’s attention; a second similar craft doing the exact same thing–pilots struggling to aright their jet–should have set off alarms.

Nevertheless, the FAA initially didn’t act after countries around the globe had grounded the MAX 8 after the second crash. This might have occurred because the Administration is “data-driven” and data from the black box of the Ethiopian Airlines crash was not immediately available.

In an interview with NPR, Peter Goelz, former managing director of the National Transportation Safety Board, said “the FAA has really prided itself on being a data-driven organization, that they don’t make ad hoc decisions” on “anecdotal evidence.” He added, the FAA has “a close working and regulatory relationship with Boeing.”

That relationship may be too close. Last week the FBI opened a criminal investigation into the certification of the Boeing 737 MAX 8.

Interpersonal Divide in the Age of the Machine (Oxford Univ. Press 2018) questions overuse of technology at the expense of human intelligence and common sense.

Those were key factors in the MAX 8 crashes.

 

New Zealand mosque attack shows need for Congress to regulate Facebook

Des Moines Register

Copyright 2019 Des Moines Register

Some 13 years ago, I alerted the higher education community about the misuse of a new social medium, noting that 20,247 of 25,741 students at Iowa State University were already registered, although many faculty and administrators had never heard about it.

The piece, “Facing the Facebook,” appeared in The Chronicle of Higher Education. Here’s an excerpt:

“On many levels, Facebook is fascinating — an interactive, image-laden directory featuring groups that share lifestyles or attitudes. Many students find it addictive, as evidenced by discussion groups with names like ‘Addicted to the Facebook,’ which boasts 330 members at Iowa State. Nationwide, Facebook tallies 250 million hits every day and ranks ninth in overall traffic on the Internet.”

In late 2005, when I researched Facebook for my Chronicle piece, the platform boasted 5.5 million users. In 2012, Facebook surpassed 1 billion users. It tallied 2.32 billion active users at the end of 2018. If you count the company’s WhatsApp, Instagram and Messenger, that figure rises to 2.7 billion.

In sum, the company’s total registered users are about the size of the populations of China and India combined.

That’s a lot of power. That’s a lot of profit.

For the rest of the op-ed, click here or visit: https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/opinion/columnists/iowa-view/2019/03/19/new-zealand-mosque-attack-shows-need-congress-regulate-facebook/3205769002/

Wiretap v. Photoshop in college admissions scandal

Photoshopped stock images of athletes–manipulated with applicant faces alongside fake profiles–were used in a cheating scandal to ensure admission into elite colleges. Parents paid millions to an organization whose digital methods were no match for modern-day wiretap technology.

An account of the cheating scandal, published in Inside Higher Ed, has led to 50 indictments involving non-athlete applicants, bribed coaches and rigged SAT/ACT scores to ensure acceptance at elite and competitive colleges.

Among those indicted are actresses Felicity Huffman and Lori Loughlin, along with wealthy parents in law and business. They paid millions in a rigged system so that their children could take slots that other applicants deserved based on grades, test scores and/or athletic abilities.

Federal investigators used wiretaps to gather evidence against the accused and the scheme’s mastermind, Rick Singer, who ran Edge College & Career Network and a foundation created to conceal bribe money.

Not all cases involved non-athletes taking recruitment slots reserved for worthy applicants with athletic ability. However, Division I coaches from Georgetown, Stanford, Texas, UCLA, USC, Wake Forest and Yale were charged in the scheme. Use of recruiting slots reportedly was one additional method of ensuring acceptance.

The lesson here, however, concerns the sophisticated technology of modern-day wiretap in federal investigations. Cornell Law School lists these methods:

Examples of electronic surveillance include: wiretapping, bugging, videotaping; geolocation tracking such as via RFID, GPS, or cell-site data; data mining, social media mapping, and the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. Such surveillance tracks communications that falls into two general categories: wire and electronic communications. “Wire” communications involve the transfer of the contents from one point to another via a wire, cable, or similar device. Electronic communications refer to the transfer of information, data, sounds, or other contents via electronic means, such as email, VoIP, or uploading to the cloud.

Technology used in the cheating scandal was easily detected. In some cases, ordinary computer programs were used to manipulate images and create fake digital content. Here’s an example obtained through wiretap:

At this point, universities have not indicated how they will deal with students accepted fraudulently via fake admissions. Reports indicate that many such students did not realize what their parents had done to get them into top programs.

In one case, prior YouTube posts by Lori Loughlin’s daughter Olivia caused a stir on social media.

Reportedly, Lori Loughlin and her husband Mossimo Giannulli, agreed to pay $500,000 in bribes to have their two daughters, Isabella, 20, and Olivia, 19, “designated as recruits to the USC crew team — despite the fact that they did not participate in crew — thereby facilitating their admission to USC.”

Interpersonal Divide in the Age of the Machine includes chapters on use of technology to create fake and misleading content and the ramifications of that at home, school and work.

Here’s an excerpt:

Media and technology have always manipulated self-image, values, and perception. However, the current high-tech era is unique because of the power of the electronic tools, the time that we spend using them, the tasks that we relegate to machines out of convenience, and the influence of the corporations that manufacture them. The net result is a blurring of boundaries. The real and virtually real—including augmented reality, or computer enhanced views of life and locale (as in GPS technology)—have blended to such degree that we cannot always correctly ascertain what is genuine and enduring from what is artificial and fleeting. That type of confusion comes with its own set of interpersonal and societal consequences, complicating our lives and relationships, not because we are necessarily dysfunctional, but because we have forgotten how to respond ethically, emotionally, and intellectually to the challenges, desires, and opportunities of life at home, school and work.

The societal consequences in the college admissions scandal is a prime case of privileged people failing to respond ethically, emotionally and intellectually. Now they face the consequences. As Boston US Attorney noted, “There can be no separate college admission system for the wealthy, and I’ll add there will not be a separate criminal justice system, either.”